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Maryland State Department of Education. The Maryland Department of Transportation oversees most transportation in the state through its various administration-level agencies. The Plain Dealer. In addition, a number of educational and medical research institutions are maryland usa – maryland usa: in the state. Retrieved June 11, August 30,


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Academics Spanning 12 schools and colleges, Maryland offers more than degree-granting programs, many of them ranked among the best in the country. Can’t find what you’re looking for?

Ask Agent Mary. Search Results. Maryland OneStop OneStop is the central hub for Maryland State licenses, forms, certificates, permits, applications, and registrations. Governor Boyd K. Rutherford Visit the Governor’s Office. Maryland Fun for Everyone At home for the moment? Open Meetings Loading However, given the incidence of malaria , yellow fever , and typhoid , life expectancy in Maryland was about 10 years less than in New England.

Maryland was founded to provide a haven for England’s Roman Catholic minority. In , a number of Puritans left Virginia for Maryland and founded Providence now called Annapolis on the western shore of the upper Chesapeake Bay. The two years from to when Claiborne and his Puritan associates held sway were known as «The Plundering Time». They captured Jesuit priests, imprisoned them, then sent them back to England.

In Leonard Calvert returned with troops, recaptured St. Mary’s City, and restored order. The House of Delegates passed the «Act concerning Religion» in granting religious liberty to all Trinitarian Christians. In , the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government. The Puritan revolutionary government persecuted Maryland Catholics during its reign, known as the «plundering time». Mobs burned down all the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland.

The Puritan rule lasted until when the Calvert family and Lord Baltimore regained proprietary control and re-enacted the Toleration Act. In , the Maryland General Assembly prohibited Catholics from operating schools, limited the corporate ownership of property to hamper religious orders from expanding or supporting themselves, and encouraged the conversion of Catholic children.

This state of affairs lasted until after the American Revolutionary War — Wealthy Catholic planters built chapels on their land to practice their religion in relative secrecy. Into the 18th century, individual priests and lay leaders claimed Maryland farms belonging to the Jesuits as personal property and bequeathed them in order to evade the legal restrictions on religious organizations’ owning property.

The royal charter granted Maryland the land north of the Potomac River up to the 40th parallel. A problem arose when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania. The grant defined Pennsylvania’s southern border as identical to Maryland’s northern border, the 40th parallel. But the grant indicated that Charles II and William Penn assumed the 40th parallel would pass close to New Castle, Delaware when it falls north of Philadelphia , the site of which Penn had already selected for his colony’s capital city.

Negotiations ensued after the problem was discovered in A compromise proposed by Charles II in was undermined by Penn’s receiving the additional grant of what is now Delaware. The dispute remained unresolved for nearly a century, carried on by the descendants of William Penn and Lord Baltimore—the Calvert family , which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family , which controlled Pennsylvania. The border dispute with Pennsylvania led to Cresap’s War in the s.

Hostilities erupted in and escalated through the first half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland in and by Pennsylvania in The armed phase of the conflict ended in May with the intervention of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a cease-fire. A provisional agreement had been established in Negotiations continued until a final agreement was signed in The agreement defined the border between Maryland and Pennsylvania as the line of latitude now known as the Mason—Dixon line.

Most of the English colonists arrived in Maryland as indentured servants , and had to serve a several years’ term as laborers to pay for their passage. Mixed-race children born to white mothers were considered free by the principle of partus sequitur ventrem , by which children took the social status of their mothers, a principle of slave law that was adopted throughout the colonies, following Virginia in During the colonial era, families of free people of color were formed most often by unions of white women and African men.

Many of the free black families migrated to Delaware, where land was cheaper. The economy’s growth and prosperity were based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco as the commodity crop. Maryland was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. Near the end of the American Revolutionary War — , on February 2, , Maryland became the last and 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union , first proposed in and adopted by the Second Continental Congress in , which brought into being the United States as a united, sovereign and national state.

It also became the seventh state admitted to the Union after ratifying the new federal Constitution in In December , Maryland donated land selected by first President George Washington to the federal government for the creation of the new national capital of Washington, D.

The land was provided along the north shore of the Potomac River from Montgomery and Prince George’s counties, as well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria on the south shore of the Potomac in Virginia ; however, the land donated by the Commonwealth of Virginia was later returned to that state by the District of Columbia retrocession in Influenced by a changing economy, revolutionary ideals, and preaching by ministers, numerous planters in Maryland freed their slaves in the 20 years after the Revolutionary War.

During this bombardment the song » Star Spangled Banner » was written by Francis Scott Key ; it was later adopted as the national anthem. The National Road U. Hwy 40 today was authorized in and ran from Baltimore to St. Louis—the first federal highway. It opened its first section of track for regular operation in between Baltimore and Ellicott City, [39] and in it became the first rail line to reach the Ohio River from the eastern seaboard.

The state remained with the Union during the Civil War, [41] due in significant part to demographics and Federal intervention. Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks suspended the state legislature, and to help ensure the election of a new pro-union governor and legislature, President Abraham Lincoln had a number of its pro-slavery politicians arrested, including the Mayor of Baltimore, George William Brown ; suspended several civil liberties, including habeas corpus ; and ordered artillery placed on Federal Hill overlooking Baltimore.

Historians debate the constitutionality of these wartime actions, and the suspension of civil liberties was later deemed illegal by the U. Supreme Court. In April Federal units and state regiments were attacked as they marched through Baltimore, sparking the Baltimore riot of , the first bloodshed in the Civil War.

Although a tactical draw, the battle was considered a strategic Union victory and a turning point of the war. A new state constitution in abolished slavery and Maryland was first recognized as a «Free State» in that context. The Democratic Party rapidly regained power in the state from Republicans. Democrats replaced the Constitution of with the Constitution of Following the end of Reconstruction in , Democrats devised means of disenfranchising blacks, initially by physical intimidation and voter fraud, later by constitutional amendments and laws.

Blacks and immigrants, however, resisted Democratic Party disfranchisement efforts in the state. Compared to some other states, blacks were better established both before and after the civil war. Nearly half the black population was free before the war, and some had accumulated property.

Half the population lived in cities. Literacy was high among blacks and, as Democrats crafted means to exclude them, suffrage campaigns helped reach blacks and teach them how to resist. Baltimore grew significantly during the Industrial Revolution , due in large part to its seaport and good railroad connections, attracting European immigrant labor.

Many manufacturing businesses were established in the Baltimore area after the Civil War. Baltimore businessmen, including Johns Hopkins , Enoch Pratt , George Peabody , and Henry Walters , founded notable city institutions that bear their names, including respectively a university , library system , music and dance conservatory , and art museum. Cumberland was Maryland’s second-largest city in the 19th century.

Nearby supplies of natural resources along with railroads fostered its growth into a major manufacturing center. The Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought political reforms. In a series of laws passed between and , reformers worked for standard state-issued ballots rather than those distributed and marked by the parties ; obtained closed voting booths to prevent party workers from «assisting» voters; initiated primary elections to keep party bosses from selecting candidates; and had candidates listed without party symbols, which discouraged the illiterate from participating.

These measures worked against ill-educated whites and blacks. Blacks resisted such efforts, with suffrage groups conducting voter education. Blacks defeated three efforts to disenfranchise them, making alliances with immigrants to resist various Democratic campaigns.

The Progressive Era also brought reforms in working conditions for Maryland’s labor force. In , the state regulated conditions in mines ; outlawed child laborers under the age of 12; mandated compulsory school attendance; and enacted the nation’s first workers’ compensation law. The workers’ compensation law was overturned in the courts, but was redrafted and finally enacted in The Great Baltimore Fire of burned for more than 30 hours, destroying 1, buildings and spanning 70 city blocks.

More than 1, firefighters worked to bring the blaze under control. Existing facilities, including Fort McHenry , were greatly expanded. After Georgia congressman William D.

Upshaw criticized Maryland openly in for not passing Prohibition laws, Baltimore Sun editor Hamilton Owens coined the «Free State» nickname for Maryland in that context, which was popularized by H. Mencken in a series of newspaper editorials. Maryland’s urban and rural communities had different experiences during the Great Depression. The » Bonus Army » marched through the state in on its way to Washington, D.

Maryland instituted its first income tax in to generate revenue for schools and welfare. Passenger and freight steamboat service, once important throughout Chesapeake Bay and its many tributary rivers, ended in Baltimore was a major war production center during World War II.

The biggest operations were Bethlehem Steel ‘s Fairfield Yard, which built Liberty ships ; and Glenn Martin , an aircraft manufacturer. Maryland experienced population growth following World War II. Beginning in the s, as suburban growth took hold around Washington, D.

Agricultural tracts gave way to residential communities, some of them carefully planned such as Columbia , St. Charles , and Montgomery Village. Concurrently the Interstate Highway System was built throughout the state, most notably I , I , and the Capital Beltway , altering travel patterns. In , the eastern and western halves of Maryland were linked for the first time by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge , which replaced a nearby ferry service.

Maryland’s regions experienced economic changes following WWII. Heavy manufacturing declined in Baltimore. In Maryland’s four westernmost counties, industrial, railroad, and coal mining jobs declined. On the lower Eastern Shore , family farms were bought up by major concerns and large-scale poultry farms and vegetable farming became prevalent.

In Southern Maryland, tobacco farming nearly vanished due to suburban development and a state tobacco buy-out program in the s. In an effort to reverse depopulation due to the loss of working-class industries, Baltimore initiated urban renewal projects in the s with Charles Center and the Baltimore World Trade Center. Some resulted in the break-up of intact residential neighborhoods, producing social volatility, and some older residential areas around the harbor have had units renovated and have become popular with new populations.

Maryland has an area of 12, The next largest state, its neighbor West Virginia , is almost twice the size of Maryland [24, Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature.

It ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to gently rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region , and pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania , on its north and east by Delaware , on its east by the Atlantic Ocean , and on its south and west, across the Potomac River , by West Virginia and Virginia.

The mid-portion of this latter border is interrupted by the District of Columbia , which sits on land that was originally part of Montgomery and Prince George’s counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland. The Commonwealth of Virginia gave land south of the Potomac, including the town of Alexandria, Virginia ; however, Virginia retroceded its portion in The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore.

Most of the state’s waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County drained by the Youghiogheny River as part of the watershed of the Mississippi River , the eastern half of Worcester County which drains into Maryland’s Atlantic coastal bays , and a small portion of the state’s northeast corner which drains into the Delaware River watershed.

So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland’s geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state’s official nickname to the «Bay State», a nickname that has been used by Massachusetts for decades. The highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3, feet 1, m , is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain , in the southwest corner of Garrett County , near the border with West Virginia, and near the headwaters of the North Branch of the Potomac River.

Close to the small town of Hancock , in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state, less than 2 miles 3. Portions of Maryland are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. For example, the Delmarva Peninsula is composed of the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the entire state of Delaware , and the two counties that make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia , whereas the westernmost counties of Maryland are considered part of Appalachia.

Much of the Baltimore—Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, [52] though it straddles the border between the two regions. Buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. Maryland has no natural lakes, mostly due to the lack of glacial history in the area. Maryland has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible. As is typical of states on the East Coast , Maryland’s plant life is abundant and healthy.

A modest volume of annual precipitation helps to support many types of plants, including seagrass and various reeds at the smaller end of the spectrum to the gigantic Wye Oak , a huge example of white oak , the state tree, which can grow over 70 feet 21 m tall. Middle Atlantic coastal forests , typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain , grow around Chesapeake Bay and on the Delmarva Peninsula.

Moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mixed forests cover the central part of the state.

These give way to Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests near the West Virginia border. Many foreign species are cultivated in the state, some as ornamentals, others as novelty species. Included among these are the crape myrtle , Italian cypress , southern magnolia , live oak in the warmer parts of the state, [62] and even hardy palm trees in the warmer central and eastern parts of the state.

The state harbors a considerable number of white-tailed deer , especially in the woody and mountainous west of the state, and overpopulation can become a problem.

Mammals can be found ranging from the mountains in the west to the central areas and include black bears , [66] bobcats , [67] foxes, coyotes , [68] raccoons, and otters. There is a population of rare wild feral horses found on Assateague Island. The purebred Chesapeake Bay Retriever dog was bred specifically for water sports, hunting and search and rescue in the Chesapeake area. Maryland’s reptile and amphibian population includes the diamondback terrapin turtle, which was adopted as the mascot of University of Maryland, College Park , as well as the threatened Eastern box turtle.

The state insect is the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly , although it is not as common in Maryland as it is in the southern edge of its range.

Maryland joined with neighboring states during the end of the 20th century to improve the health of the Chesapeake Bay. The bay’s aquatic life and seafood industry have been threatened by development and by fertilizer and livestock waste entering the bay. In , Forbes. Maryland ranks 40th in total energy consumption nationwide, and it managed less toxic waste per capita than all but six states in Vermont has such a law, but no shale gas, and New York has such a ban, though it was made by executive order.

Maryland has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to water, and protection from colder weather due to downslope winds. The eastern half of Maryland — which includes the cities of Ocean City , Salisbury , Annapolis , and the southern and eastern suburbs of Washington, D. In western Maryland, the higher elevations of Allegany and Garrett counties—including the cities of Cumberland , Frostburg , and Oakland —display more characteristics of the humid continental zone, due in part to elevation.

Precipitation in the state is characteristic of the East Coast. Annual rainfall ranges from 35 to 45 inches to 1, mm with more in higher elevations. Nearly every part of Maryland receives 3.

Average annual snowfall varies from 9 inches 23 cm in the coastal areas to over inches cm in the western mountains of the state. Because of its location near the Atlantic Coast , Maryland is somewhat vulnerable to tropical cyclones , although the Delmarva Peninsula and the outer banks of North Carolina provide a large buffer, such that strikes from major hurricanes category 3 or above occur infrequently.

More often, Maryland gets the remnants of a tropical system that has already come ashore and released most of its energy. Maryland averages around 30—40 days of thunderstorms a year, and averages around six tornado strikes annually. This includes a natural increase since the last census of , , births minus , deaths and an increase due to net migration of , people into the state.

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of , people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13, people. Maryland’s history as a border state has led it to exhibit characteristics of both the Northern and the Southern regions of the United States.

Census Bureau designates Maryland as one of the South Atlantic States , but it is commonly associated with the Mid-Atlantic States and Northeastern United States by other federal agencies, the media, and some residents.

As of , Note: Births in the table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Since , data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Spanish including Spanish Creole is the second most spoken language in Maryland, after English. The third and fourth most spoken languages are French including Patois and Cajun and Chinese. Most of the population of Maryland lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore metropolitan area and Washington metropolitan area , both of which are part of the Baltimore—Washington metropolitan area.

The majority of Maryland’s population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington, D. Historically, these and many other Maryland cities developed along the Fall Line , the line along which rivers, brooks, and streams are interrupted by rapids and waterfalls. Maryland’s capital city, Annapolis , is one exception to this pattern since it lies along the banks of the Severn River , close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western Maryland.

The two westernmost counties of Maryland, Allegany and Garrett , are mountainous and sparsely populated, resembling West Virginia and Appalachia more than they do the rest of the state. Southern Maryland is still somewhat rural, but suburbanization from Washington, D. In , the U. Census Bureau reported Maryland’s population as African Americans form a sizable portion of the state’s population, New residents of African descent include 20th-century and later immigrants from Nigeria , particularly of the Igbo and Yoruba tribes.

Many immigrants from the Horn of Africa have settled in Maryland, with large communities existing in the suburbs of Washington, D. The Greater Washington area has the largest population of Ethiopians outside of Africa. Irish American populations can be found throughout the Baltimore area , [] and the Northern and Eastern suburbs of Washington, D. A large percentage of the population of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland are descendants of British American ancestry.

The Eastern Shore was settled by Protestants, chiefly Methodist and the southern counties were initially settled by English Catholics. Western and northern Maryland have large German-American populations. More recent European immigrants of the late 19th and early 20th century settled first in Baltimore, attracted to its industrial jobs. Many of their ethnic Italian , Polish , Czech , Lithuanian , and Greek descendants still live in the area.

The shares of European immigrants born in Eastern Europe increased significantly between and Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia, many immigrants from Eastern Europe came to the United States—12 percent of whom currently reside in Maryland.

Salvadorans are the largest Hispanic group in Maryland. Other Hispanic groups with significant populations in the state include Mexicans and Puerto Ricans and Hondurans. Though the Salvadoran population is more concentrated in the area around Washington, D. Maryland has one of the most diverse Hispanic populations in the country, with significant populations from various Caribbean and Central American nations.

Asian Americans are concentrated in the suburban counties surrounding Washington, D. Numerous Indian Americans live across the state, especially in central Maryland. Attracting educated Asians and Africans to the professional jobs in the region, Maryland has the fifth-largest proportions of racial minorities in the country.

In , , were counted as foreign born, which represents mainly people from Latin America and Asia. About four percent are undocumented immigrants.

According to The Williams Institute’s analysis of the U. In , non-Hispanic white Americans were Maryland has been historically prominent to American Catholic tradition because the English colony of Maryland was intended by George Calvert as a haven for English Catholics. Baltimore was the seat of the first Catholic bishop in the U. Elizabeth Ann Seton. Georgetown University , the first Catholic University, was founded in in what was then part of Maryland it became a part of the District of Columbia when it was created in the s.

The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Baltimore was the first Roman Catholic cathedral built in the United States, and the Archbishop of Baltimore is, albeit without formal primacy, the United States’ quasi- primate , [ citation needed ] and often a cardinal.

Among the immigrants of the 19th and 20th centuries from eastern and southern Europe were many Catholics. Demographically, both Protestants and those identifying with no religion are more numerous than Catholics. According to the Pew Research Center in , 69 percent of Maryland’s population identifies themselves as Christian.

Mary’s , Garrett , and Cecil counties. Two of Maryland’s counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the second and eleventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively. Maryland has the most millionaires per capita in , with a ratio of 7.

As of March , the state’s unemployment rate was 4. Maryland’s economy benefits from the state’s proximity to the federal government in Washington, D. In addition, a number of educational and medical research institutions are located in the state. In fact, the various components of The Johns Hopkins University and its medical research facilities are now the largest single employer in the Baltimore area. Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25 percent of Maryland’s labor force , [ citation needed ] attributable in part to nearby Maryland being a part of the Washington Metro Area where the federal government office employment is relatively high.

Manufacturing, while large in dollar value, is highly diversified with no sub-sector contributing over 20 percent of the total. Typical forms of manufacturing include electronics, computer equipment, and chemicals.

The once-mighty primary metals sub-sector, which once included what was then the largest steel factory in the world at Sparrows Point , still exists, but is pressed with foreign competition, bankruptcies , and mergers.

Mining other than construction materials is virtually limited to coal, which is located in the mountainous western part of the state. The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore and Washington much of their characteristic architecture in the midth century, were once a predominant natural resource. Historically, there used to be small gold-mining operations in Maryland, some near Washington, but these no longer exist.

One major service activity is transportation, centered on the Port of Baltimore and its related rail and trucking access. The port ranked 17th in the U. The port also receives several brands of imported motor vehicles and is the number one auto port in the U. Baltimore City is among the top 15 largest ports in the nation, [] and was one of six major U. Its computer industries are some of the most sophisticated in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area.

Maryland is home to several large military bases and scores of high-level government jobs. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is a 14 miles 23 km canal on the Eastern Shore that connects the waters of the Delaware River with those of the Chesapeake Bay, and in particular with the Port of Baltimore, carrying 40 percent of the port’s ship traffic.

Maryland has a large food-production sector. A large component of this is commercial fishing , centered in the Chesapeake Bay, but also including activity off the short Atlantic seacoast. The largest catches by species are the blue crab , oysters , striped bass , and menhaden. The Bay also has overwintering waterfowl in its wildlife refuges.

The waterfowl support a tourism sector of sportsmen. Maryland has large areas of fertile agricultural land in its coastal and Piedmont zones, though this land use is being encroached upon by urbanization. Agriculture is oriented to dairy farming especially in foothill and piedmont areas for nearby large city milksheads, plus specialty perishable horticulture crops, such as cucumbers , watermelons , sweet corn , tomatoes , muskmelons , squash , and peas Source:USDA Crop Profiles.

The southern counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay are warm enough to support a tobacco cash crop zone, which has existed since early Colonial times, but declined greatly after a state government buy-out in the s. There is also a large automated chicken -farming sector in the state’s southeastern part; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms.

Maryland’s food-processing plants are the most significant type of manufacturing by value in the state. Farming suffers from weeds as anywhere else, including an unusual multiply resistant ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia found by Rousonelos et al. Maryland is a major center for life sciences research and development. With more than biotechnology companies located there, Maryland is the fourth largest nexus in this field in the United States. Maryland is home to defense contractor Emergent BioSolutions , which manufactures and provides an anthrax vaccine to U.

Tourism is popular in Maryland. Many tourists visit Baltimore, the beaches of the Eastern Shore, and the nature of western Maryland. Ocean City on the Atlantic Coast has been a popular beach destination in summer, particularly since the Chesapeake Bay Bridge was built in connecting the Eastern Shore to the more populated Maryland cities. Maryland also has several sites of interest to military history, given Maryland’s role in the American Civil War and in the War of Other attractions include the historic and picturesque towns along the Chesapeake Bay , such as Saint Mary’s , Maryland’s first colonial settlement and original capital.

Maryland has experimented with healthcare payment reforms, notably beginning in the s with an all-payer rate setting program regulated by the Health Services Cost Review Commission. The Maryland Department of Transportation oversees most transportation in the state through its various administration-level agencies. Maryland’s Interstate highways include miles km of Interstate 95 I , which enters the northeast portion of the state, travels through Baltimore , and becomes part of the eastern section of the Capital Beltway to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge.

I travels 81 miles km , connecting the western portions of the state to I at the small town of Hancock. I enters from Pennsylvania north of Hancock and continues east for 93 miles km to Baltimore, connecting Hagerstown and Frederick along the way.

I has 34 miles 55 km in Maryland and connects Baltimore to southern central Pennsylvania Harrisburg and York, Pennsylvania. Maryland also has an mile 18 km portion of I that travels through the state near Hagerstown. I , fully contained within Anne Arundel County and the shortest There are also several auxiliary Interstate highways in Maryland. Among them are two beltways encircling the major cities of the region: I , the McKeldin Baltimore Beltway, which encircles Baltimore; and a portion of I , the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D.

I , which connects the Frederick area with Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia through major suburbs to the northwest of Washington, is a major commuter route and is as wide as fourteen lanes at points.

Construction of the ICC was a major part of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich , who was in office from until , and of Governor Martin O’Malley , who succeeded him. Maryland also has a state highway system that contains routes numbered from 2 through , however most of the higher-numbered routes are either unsigned or are relatively short.

The only other airports with commercial service are at Hagerstown and Salisbury. The Maryland suburbs of Washington, D. The College Park Airport is the nation’s oldest, founded in , and is still used. Wilbur Wright trained military aviators at this location. The WMATA ‘s Metrorail rapid transit and Metrobus local bus systems the 2nd and 6th busiest in the nation of their respective modes provide service in Montgomery and Prince George’s counties and connect them to Washington, D.

The Maryland Transit Administration often abbreviated as «MTA Maryland» , a state agency part of the Maryland Department of Transportation also provides transit services within the state. Baltimore’s Light RailLink and Metro SubwayLink systems serve its densely populated inner-city and the surrounding suburbs. The MTA also serves the city and its suburbs with its local bus service the 9th largest system in the nation.

Freight rail transport is handled principally by two Class I railroads , as well as several smaller regional and local carriers. CSX Transportation has more extensive trackage throughout the state, with miles km , [] followed by Norfolk Southern Railway.

Major rail yards are located in Baltimore and Cumberland, [] with an intermodal terminal rail, truck and marine in Baltimore. The government of Maryland is conducted according to the state constitution. The government of Maryland, like the other 49 state governments , has exclusive authority over matters that lie entirely within the state’s borders, except as limited by the Constitution of the United States.

Power in Maryland is divided among three branches of government: executive , legislative , and judicial. Maryland’s governor is unique in the United States as the office is vested with significant authority in budgeting.

The legislature may not increase the governor’s proposed budget expenditures. Unlike many other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland’s counties. Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis , the state capital however some cabinet departments and state officials have their offices in Baltimore.

Elections for governor and most statewide offices, as well as most county elections, are held in midterm-election years even-numbered years not divisible by four. The intermediate appellate court is known as the Court of Special Appeals and the state supreme court is the Court of Appeals. The appearance of the judges of the Maryland Court of Appeals is unique; Maryland is the only state whose judges wear red robes.

Maryland imposes five income tax brackets, ranging from 2 to 6. Local officials set the rates and the revenue is returned to the local governments quarterly.


Maryland Cities by Population – Tools & Converters

14 hours ago · USAO – Maryland Contact: Marcia Lubin () Updated October 7, From picturesque towns like St. Michaels to the gorgeous beaches and roaming wild horses of Assateague Island, Maryland’s Eastern Shore is full of surprises. The big city of Baltimore and . Oct 03,  · State: Maryland. Abbreviation: MD. State Capital: Annapolis. Country: United States. Time Zones.

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